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Abdominal Pain in Children Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment by eMedici
Read about abdominal pain in children, which may be caused by infections, food poisoning or allergy, poisoning, appendicitis, diabetes, or spider bites. Symptoms range from vomiting, diarrhea, fever, groin pain, urinary problems, or skin rash.

Abscesses that develop as a result of introduction of the normal endogenous flora into a normally sterile body site are often polymicrobial in nature. These flora can gain access to the sterile site by direct extension or secondary to laceration or perforation

Acinetobacter : Article by Burke A Cunha, MD
Acinetobacter - Acinetobacter baumannii is a pleomorphic aerobic gram-negative bacillus (similar in appearance to Haemophilus influenzae on Gram stain) commonly isolated from the hospital environment and hospitalized patients. A baumannii is a water organism and preferentially colonizes aquatic environments. This organism is often cultured from hospitalized patients’ sputum or respiratory secretions, wounds, and urine. Acinetobacter also colonizes irrigating solutions and intravenous solutions.Acinetobacter is an organism of low virulence, but it is capable of causing infection. Most Acinetobacter isolates recovered from ...

Adenoidectomy : Article by John E McClay, MD
Adenoidectomy - Adenoidectomy is the surgical procedure in which the adenoids are removed. Adenoids are lymphoid tissue located in the back of the nose. They often are not understood by the lay public or by physicians who are not otolaryngologists since they are not observed on routine physical exam because of their location. Although the tissue composition of adenoids is the same as that of the tonsils, the diseases associated with infected adenoids differ from the diseases associated with infected ...

Alcoholic Hepatitis : Article by Anastasios A Mihas, MD, FACP, FACG
Alcoholic Hepatitis - Alcoholic hepatitis is a syndrome of progressive inflammatory liver injury associated with chronic heavy intake of ethanol. The pathogenesis is incompletely understood.Patients who are affected severely present with subacute onset of fever, hepatomegaly, leukocytosis, marked impairment of liver function (eg, jaundice, coagulopathy), and manifestations of portal hypertension (eg, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal hemorrhage). However, milder forms of alcoholic hepatitis often are completely asymptomatic.On microscopic examination, the liver characteristically exhibits centrilobular ballooning necrosis of hepatocytes, neutrophilic ...

Amyloid Angiopathy : Article by Jose G Merino, MD
Amyloid Angiopathy - Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) refers to the deposition of ß-amyloid in the media and adventitia of small- and mid-sized arteries (and less frequently, veins) of the cerebral cortex and the leptomeninges. It is a component of any disorder in which amyloid is deposited in the brain, and it is not associated with systemic amyloidosis. CAA has been recognized as one of the morphologic hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD), but it also is found often in the brains ...

Angioid Streaks : Article by Mohammad Abusamak, MD
Angioid Streaks - In 1889, Doyne first to described angioid streaks in a patient with retinal hemorrhages secondary to trauma. Later in 1892, Knapp named them angioid streaks because of their resemblance to blood vessels. Angioid streaks result from pathological changes at the level of the Bruch membrane, which was confirmed histologically in the late ...

Ankylosing Spondylitis : Article by Alan Schaffert, MD
Ankylosing Spondylitis - Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting axial joints, including the spine and sacroiliac joints. It causes eventual fusion of the spine. Peripheral joints may be ...

Anterior Circulation Stroke : Article by Alison Baird, MD, PhD
Anterior Circulation Stroke - The anterior circulation of the brain describes the areas of the brain supplied by the right and left internal carotid arteries and their branches. The internal carotid arteries supply the majority of both cerebral hemispheres, except the occipital and medial temporal lobes, which are supplied from the posterior circulation (see Image 1). Ischemic strokes occurring in the anterior circulation are the most common of all ischemic strokes, accounting for approximately 70% of all cases. The internal ...

Anthrax : Article by Burke A Cunha, MD
Anthrax - Anthrax is described in the early literature of the Greeks, Romans, and Hindus. The fifth plague described in the book of Genesis may be among the earliest descriptions of anthrax.Most of the terms associated with anthrax relate to cutaneous or respiratory anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax results from exposure to the spores of Bacillus anthracis after handling sick animals or contaminated wool, hair, or animal hides. Pulmonary anthrax results from inhaling anthrax spores. Intestinal anthrax results from ingesting meat products ...

Arthritis as a Manifestation of Systemic Disease : Article by R Hal Scofield, MD
Arthritis as a Manifestation of Systemic Disease - A very large number of conditions have musculoskeletal manifestations; however, among these, true arthritis is the initial manifestation of the underlying illness in only a few. This article focuses on systemic diseases in which an early, or even the initial, manifestation may be musculoskeletal in nature. These disorders include hypothyroidism, primary hyperparathyroidism, Cushing disease, acromegaly, hyperlipidemia, hemochromatosis, and sarcoidosis. Most patients complaining of joint pain or ache, muscle pain, or limited range ...

Ascites evaluation and treatment MEDSTUDENTS- INTERNAL MEDICINE
Ascites: A review giving most importance on it's pathogenic mechanisms, clinical manifestations, abdominal paracentesis, analysis of ascitic fluid and medical treatment(including the use of albumin)

Ataxia-Telangiectasia : Article by Sergiusz Jozwiak, MD, PhD
Ataxia-Telangiectasia - Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive, complex, multisystem disorder characterized by progressive neurological impairment, cerebellar ataxia, variable immunodeficiency with susceptibility to sinopulmonary infections, impaired organ maturation, x-ray hypersensitivity, ocular and cutaneous telangiectasia, and a predisposition to malignancy. The disease is probably heterogeneous, both clinically and genetically, as shown by existence of 4 complementation groups (A, C, D, E). The responsible gene has been mapped to chromosome band 11q22-23.Syllaba and Henner first published descriptions of patients with A-T ...

Autism Center
The Autism Center is for families of those living with a pervasive developmental disorder. Features articles, news and resources about PDDs.

Basilar Artery Thrombosis : Article by Salvador Cruz-Flores, MD
Basilar Artery Thrombosis - In the past, basilar artery occlusion was diagnosed with absolute certainty only at autopsy. The cited prognosis was extremely poor. The advent of high-quality, reliable, and noninvasive technology (eg, MRI) has made diagnosis of this clinical entity possible and has drawn attention to the fact that some patients with partial occlusion have limited ischemic injury and, therefore, a benign prognosis. Even though the typical outcome continues to be poor, advances in the field of thrombolysis and ...

British Society for Neuroendocrinology - 5. Stress hormones and your brain
As the Millennium draws to a close, 'stress' is a word on everyone's lips. Despite sixty years of intense research effort we are only just beginning to unravel the complex interactions between systems in the body which underlie this vital and yet tantalisingly obscure phenomenon. Failure to respond appropriately to stress risks the development of pathological conditions while advance in our understanding of what goes wrong raises real hopes for improving the quality of life for many.

Bulimia : Article by Gabriel I Uwaifo, MBBS
Bulimia - Bulimia nervosa (BN) is one of the eating disorders identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). The word bulimia is derived from the Greek words bous (ox) and limos (hunger), indicating a state of excessive hunger. BN is characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating associated with emotional distress and accompanied by compensatory behavioral patterns aimed at preventing weight gain. Among the compensatory behaviors noted in this condition are excessive exercise, self-induced ...

CTGF Antibodies Fibrosis
Fibrosis refers to the excessive and persistent formation of scar tissue, which is responsible for morbidity and mortality associated with organ failure in a variety of chronic diseases affecting the lungs, kidneys, eyes, heart, liver, and skin. There are no therapies on the market today that have been shown to arrest or prevent fibrotic disease.

Calcifying Tendonitis : Article by Anthony H Woodward, MD
Calcifying Tendonitis - In 1907, Painter described calcification in the shoulder. Codman established that the calcification was within the tendons of the rotator cuff. Calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder is characterized by the presence of macroscopic deposits of hydroxyapatite (a crystalline calcium phosphate) in any tendon of the rotator cuff. This article addresses only calcifying tendinitis as it occurs in the ...

Cancer and Rehabilitation : Article by Robert J Kaplan, MD
Cancer and Rehabilitation - Physical medicine and rehabilitation is the medical specialty concerned principally with impairments, disabilities, and handicaps that arise following acute or chronic illness. According to the 1980 classification of the World Health Organization (WHO), impairment is physiologic dysfunction or loss of anatomic integrity. Disability refers to functional consequences in relation to self-care and mobility imposed by underlying impairments. Handicap may be defined as a physical condition that interferes with a patient's ability to engage in social, educational, ...

Cancers of the Oral Mucosa : Article by Crispian Scully, CBE, MD, PhD, MDS
Cancers of the Oral Mucosa - Approximately 90% of oral cancers are squamous cell carcinoma, which is seen in older men, typically on the lateral tongue. Oral cancer is particularly common in the developing world. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and strongly related to lifestyle, mostly habits and diet (particularly tobacco and alcohol use), although other factors, such as infective agents, also are implicated. History and clinical examinations by a trained diagnostician are the primary indicators of oral ...

Cell Injury
This is gangrene, or necrosis of many tissues in a body part. In this case, the toes were involved in a frostbite injury. This is an example of "dry" gangrene in which there is mainly coagulative necrosis from the anoxic injury.

Cell Injury
The sclera of the eye is yellow because the patient has jaundice, or icterus. The normally white sclerae of the eyes is a good place on physical examination to look for icterus.

Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) : Article by Yves Carlier, MD, MSc
Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) - Chagas disease is a protozoosis due to the flagellate protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi. The infection usually is transmitted by the feces of blood-sucking insect vectors (reduviid bugs). The infection is found mostly in small mammals (sylvatic cycle), and the human disease results from the colonization of the human habitat by some vector species (domestic cycle). The Brazilian physician Carlos R.J. Chagas discovered American trypanosomiasis in 1909 (see TDR Image Library image ID 9105032). The work of ...

Charles Bonnet Syndrome
Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is a term used to describe the situation when people with sight problems start to see things that they know aren’t real. Sometimes called “visual hallucinations”, the things people see can take all kinds of forms, from simple patterns of straight lines to detailed pictures of people or buildings.

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